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Wheat is a whole grain that contains three distinct parts that are separated during the milling process to produce flour.
This is about 83 percent of the kernel weight and the source of white flour. The endosperm contains greatest share of protein, carbohydrates and iron, as well as the four major B-vitamins, such as riboflavin, niacin and thiamin and folic acid. It is also a source of soluble fiber.
Bran is about 14 1/2 percent of the kernel weight. Bran is included in whole wheat flour and can also be bought separately. The bran contains dietary fiber, a small amount of protein, significant quantities of vitamin E, B-vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and photochemical.
The germ makes up about 2 1/2 percent of the kernel weight. The germ is the embryo or sprouting section of the seed, often separated from flour in the milling becauseÂ the fat content (10 percent) limits flour's shelf-life. The germ contains minimal quantities of high protein and a greater share of B-complex vitamins and trace minerals.